A Complete Worst-Case Analysis of Kannan's Shortest Lattice Vector Algorithm

Guillaume Hanrot and Damien Stehlé

Abstract: Computing a shortest nonzero vector of a given euclidean lattice and computing a closest lattice vector to a given target are pervasive problems in computer science, computational mathematics and communication theory. The classical algorithms for these tasks were invented by Ravi Kannan in 1983 and, though remarkably simple to establish, their complexity bounds have not been improved for almost thirty years. In the present paper, we provide a complete worst-case analysis of Kannan's algorithm for the shortest vector problem. We obtain a new worst-case complexity upper bound, as well as the first worst-case complexity lower bound, both of the order of 2^O(d) d^(d/(2e)) (up to polynomial factors) bit operations, where~$d$ is the rank of the lattice. The lower bound is obtained by the construction of a probabilistic algorithm that returns lattice bases on which Kannan's algorithm requires at least that many operations. We also provide a new complexity upper bound for Kannan's closest vector algorithm, of the order of 2^O(d) d^(d/2). To obtain these complexity results, we prove new bounds on the geometry of lattice bases reduced in the sense of Hermite-Korkine-Zolotarev, which may be of independent interest.

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