Library RelationAlgebra.kat_reification

kat_reification: various definitions to ease the KAT reification process

We reify KAT terms as syntax.expr trees over an alphabet including lsyntax.expr for Boolean tests. This allows us to reuse the tools developped for ra{normalise,reflexivity}, and this gives us more flexibility
Here define the conversion function from this syntax to gregex, as well as dependently typed positive maps to ease the definition of the environment for predicate variables

Require Import lsyntax ordinal lset.
Require Export positives kat gregex syntax.

Section s.
Notation Idx := positive. Notation Sigma := positive. Notation Pred := positive.
Context {X: kat.ops}.

Dependently types positive maps

we use dependently typed binary trees: v f' is used to repredent dependent functions of type n, Pred tst (f' n)
Inductive v: (Idx ob X) Type :=
| v_L: f', v f'
| v_N: f',
  v (fun nf' (xO n))
  (Pred tst (f' xH))
  v (fun nf' (xI n)) v f'.

v_get transforms such a tree into the corresponding function, using to fill the gaps
Fixpoint v_get f' (t: v f') n p: tst (f' n) :=
  match t with
    | v_L
    | v_N _ l m r
      match n with
        | xO nv_get _ l n p
        | xI nv_get _ r n p
        | xHm p

v_add f' t n x adds the binding (n,x) to t
Fixpoint v_add f' (t: v f') n: (Pred tst (f' n)) v f' :=
  match t with
    | v_L f'
        match n with
        | xHfun xv_N _ (v_L _) x (v_L _)
        | xO nfun xv_N _
          (v_add (fun nf' (xO n)) (v_L _) n x) (fun (v_L _)
        | xI nfun xv_N _
          (v_L _) (fun (v_add (fun nf' (xI n)) (v_L _) n x)
    | v_N f' l y r
        match n with
        | xHfun xv_N _ l x r
        | xO nfun xv_N _ (v_add (fun nf' (xO n)) l n x) y r
        | xI nfun xv_N _ l y (v_add (fun nf' (xI n)) r n x)

Syntax of KAT reification

we use packages for Kleene variables, as for ra_refication
Context {f': Idx ob X} {fs: Sigma Pack X f'}.

reified KAT expressions are just generic expressions (syntax.expr) over the following alphabet, which includes lsyntax.expr for Boolean expressions. The index type of the Boolean expressions is declared only once, at the e_var nodes switching from syntax.expr to lsyntax.expr
Definition var := (Sigma + Idx × lsyntax.expr Pred)%type.

typing functions for this alphabet: use the packages for Kleene variables, and the declared type for Boolean expressions
Definition s' (a: var) := match a with inl asrc_ fs a | inr (n,_)n end.
Definition t' (a: var) := match a with inl atgt_ fs a | inr (n,_)n end.

final type of reified KAT expressions
Definition kat_expr := expr s' t'.

additional constructors:
  • e_inj n p injects a Boolean expression p, at type n
  • e_var i produces a Kleene variable
  • p_var a produces a predicat variable
Definition e_inj n p: kat_expr n n := e_var (inr (n,p)).
Definition e_var i: kat_expr (src_ fs i) (tgt_ fs i) := e_var (inl i).
Definition p_var := @lsyntax.e_var Pred.

Section e.

Interpretation of KAT reified expressions

we use the interpretations functions syntax.expr and lsyntax.expr, with the appropriate substitutions

Variable fp: n, Pred tst (f' n).

Definition eval: n m, kat_expr n m X (f' n) (f' m) :=
  syntax.eval (fun a
    match a return X (f' (s' a)) (f' (t' a)) with
      | inl aval (fs a)
      | inr (n,p)inj (lsyntax.eval (fp n) p)

End e.

Predicate variables of a KAT expression

Fixpoint vars {n m} (e: kat_expr n m): list Pred :=
  match e with
    | e_zer _ _
    | e_top _ _
    | e_one _[]
    | e_pls x y
    | e_cap x y
    | e_ldv x y
    | e_rdv x y
    | e_dot x yunion (vars x) (vars y)
    | e_neg x
    | e_itr x
    | e_str x
    | e_cnv xvars x
    | syntax.e_var (inr (_,x)) ⇒ lsyntax.vars x
    | syntax.e_var _[]

index of an element in a list, as an ordinal. Together with the list of all predicate variables indices appearing in a reified term, this function will allow us to convert positive indices to ordinal ones, as required byb gregex.
Fixpoint idx (x: Pred) (l: list Pred): option (ord (length l)) :=
  match l with
    | []None
    | y::q
      if eqb_pos x y then Some ord0 else
      match idx x q with Some iSome (ordS i) | NoneNone end

From reified KAT expressions to gregex

we interpret the expression in the gregex model, mapping all Boolean expressions with positives variables to their counterpart with ordinal variables
Definition to_gregex (l: list positive):
   n m, kat_expr n m gregex (length l) (src_ fs) (tgt_ fs) n m :=
    syntax.eval (fun a
      match a return gregex _ (src_ fs) (tgt_ fs) (s' a) (t' a) with
        | inl ag_var a
        | inr (n,p)g_prd _ _
          (lsyntax.eval (fun x
            match idx x l with
              | Some ilsyntax.e_var i
              | Nonelsyntax.e_top: lsyntax.expr_ BL
            end) p)

correctness of the idx function
Lemma in_idx x l: In x l j, idx x l = Some j nth j l xH = x.
  induction l. intros []. intro Hl. simpl idx. case eqb_spec.
  intros <-. ord0. now split.
  destruct Hl as [<-|Hl]. congruence.
  intros _. apply IHl in Hl as [j [-> Hj]]. (ordS j). split. reflexivity.
  destruct j. assumption.

factorisation of the interpretation function, through gregex
since the type of expressions is slightly to big (it contains residuals and converse, for instance), we have to check that the expression does not use such constructions, whence the first hypothesis.
Lemma to_gregex_eval {L: laws X} v n m e fp: e_level e << BKA vars e <== v
  eval fp n m e ==
  gregex.eval f' (fun n ifp n (nth i v xH)) (fun ival (fs i)) (to_gregex v n m e).
  induction e; simpl e_level; simpl (vars _); intros Hl Hv;
    try discriminate_levels; simpl; rewrite ?union_app in Hv.
   symmetry. apply kat.inj_top.
   apply cup_weq.
    apply IHe1. solve_lower'. rewrite <- Hv. lattice.
    apply IHe2. solve_lower'. rewrite <- Hv. lattice.
   apply dot_weq.
    apply IHe1. solve_lower'. rewrite <- Hv. lattice.
    apply IHe2. solve_lower'. rewrite <- Hv. lattice.
   apply itr_weq, IHe. solve_lower'. assumption.
   rewrite kat.inj_top, <-str_itr. apply str_weq, IHe. solve_lower'. assumption.
   destruct a as [a|[n p]]. reflexivity.
   simpl. apply kat.inj_weq. clear Hl.
   induction p; simpl; simpl (lsyntax.vars _) in Hv; rewrite ?union_app in Hv.
    apply cup_weq.
     apply IHp1. rewrite <-Hv. lattice.
     apply IHp2. rewrite <-Hv. lattice.
    apply cap_weq.
     apply IHp1. rewrite <-Hv. lattice.
     apply IHp2. rewrite <-Hv. lattice.
    apply neg_weq, IHp. assumption.
    simpl. destruct (in_idx a v) as [j [-> Hj]]. apply Hv; now left.
    simpl. now rewrite Hj.

as a corollary, we get the reification lemma (The hypothesis that expressions do not use forbidden symbols will be easily checked by reflection, dynamically.)

Corollary to_gregex_weq {L: laws X} n m e f fp:
  e_level e + e_level f << BKA
  (let v := vars (e_pls e f) in to_gregex v n m e == to_gregex v n m f)
  eval fp n m e == eval fp n m f.
  intros Hl H. rewrite 2(to_gregex_eval (vars (e_pls e f)))
    by (solve_lower' || simpl (vars _); rewrite union_app; lattice).
   apply H, L.

End s.

Arguments e_inj _ _ _ _%positive _%last.
Arguments e_var _ _ _ _%positive.
Arguments p_var _%positive.

Load ML reification modules

Declare ML Module "ra_common".
Declare ML Module "kat_reification".